[영문기사 읽기] Putin and the ‘Biden Memorial Pipeline’ to China
2019년 12월 24일 · 신현철/국제정치 대표작가
Part II : 영문 기사 읽기
In early 2014
Washington/ staged/ a blatant coup d’etat (in Ukraine)
(1)(breaking/ the historic relationship with Russia
(2)setting/ the stage for the subsequent NATO demonization of Russia).
– stage a coup d’etat : 쿠데타를 전개하다
stage : 무대에 올리다; (극적•공공적 효과를 노려) …을 꾀하다, 기도하다, 조직하다, 전개하다; …을 극적으로 실현하다
stage a strike 동맹 파업에 돌입하다[항의 데모를 단행하다].
– set the stage for .…의 준비를 하다, 채비를 하다
– blatant [bléitənt] 1.뻔뻔스러운 2.시끄러운
– demonization 악마화 / demon [díːmən] 악마
The one (in charge for the Obama Administration of the Ukraine coup)/ was/ then-Vice President Joe Biden.
– in charge 책임을 맡은, 담당하는, 관리하는
Today a bizarre Democrat impeachment attempt (aimed at President Donald Trump)/ has curiously enough put/ the spotlight on the dubious role (that Joe Biden/ played in Ukraine affairs in 2014 and after).
– bizarre 기괴한
– impeachment 탄핵
– dubious 의심쩍은
That Biden-steered coup/ had/ the unintended effect of causing/ a 180 degree geopolitical pivot of Moscow (from West to East).
– geopolitical pivot 지정학적 축
The opening of a massive new gas pipeline/ now is/ only one of those unintended consequences.
– unintended 의도치 않은
On December 2, Russian President Vladimir Putin/ participated in the official opening of the Power of Siberia natural gas pipeline to Asia, servicing/ the growing China gas market.
– the Power of Siberia 시베리아의 힘(파이프라인 이름)
It/ met/ the planned deadline punctually, to the month.
This/ marked/ the first Russian pipeline gas deliveries to China.
In a videolink with China President Xi Jinping, Putin/ remarked, “This step/ is bringing/ Russian-Chinese strategic cooperation (in energy) (to a whole new level).”
– remark 말하다, 한마디하다
– strategic cooperation 전략적 협력
Xi/ called/ it/ “a milestone project for the bilateral energy cooperation.”
– milestone 기념비, 획기적인 사건
The opening, a huge engineering feat,/ completes/ a pipeline (through Russia’s Eastern Siberia north of Mongolia to the border with China), running/ more than 2,200 kilometers (across Russia’s east territories).
– feat 업적
– complete 완성시키다
It/ is/ the largest gas pipeline project (in the world) (to date).
The pipeline/ is designed
(to (1)deal with temperatures as low as 62°C minus,
(2)withstand / earthquakes (along its route)).
– deal with 대처하다, 처리하다, 해결하다
– withstand 견디다
It/ (1)begins in the Chayanda gas field in Yakutia
(2)completes/ the Russian section at Blagoveshchensk on the Russia–China border.
There, via two underwater pipelines (under the Amur River),
it/ connects with a Chinese gas line (going south to Shanghai), the 3,371-kilometer-long Heihe–Shanghai pipeline in China.
The world’s largest market demand increase (for gas fuel) (in recent years)/ has been/ China.
In May 2014, Gazprom and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)/ signed/ a $400 billion 30-year agreement (for gas // to be supplied (via the Power of Siberia gas pipeline)).
The Russian gas deliveries to China/ will be/ 38 billion cubic meters per year (when it/ reaches/ peak in 2025).
(In 2018) China natural gas consumption/ was/ 280 bcm, so the Siberian contribution/ is/ significant.
It/ will eventually supply/ some 10% of China’s total gas needs for electricity and heating, to China’s underdeveloped northeast regions and south (as far as Shanghai).
But the project/ is about much more than gas to China.
Completion of the major Power of Siberia pipeline to China/ involves/ more than a pipeline (running through 2,200 kilometers of remote Russia).
It/ is also being used (as a catalyst (to develop/ major industry in the economically underdeveloped Russian Far East as well, a priority of the Russian government in recent years)).
– catalyst 촉매제
– priority 우선순위(사업)
A little discussed parallel development (tied to the construction of the Power of Siberia pipeline)/ is/ Gazprom’s decision (to build/ Russia’s largest gas-processing chemical facility, the Amur Gas Processing Plant, or the Amur GPP).
– parallel [pǽrəlèl] 평행의; 병렬적인; 같은 방향성을 가진
The Amur GPP/ is/ the largest construction project (in Russia’s Far East), a $14 billion complex (near Svobodny on the Zeya River in Amur Oblast), some 170 kilometers (from the gas pipeline’s China connection point).
The Amur GPP scale/ is/ enormous, the size of 1,100 football fields.
The complex/ will use/ a portion of the huge gas reserves of the Power of Siberia fields (in East Siberia) (to produce/ a mix of petrochemicals (that will include/ ethane, propane, butane, pentane-hexane fraction and 60 million cubic meters of helium annually).
– ethane [éθein] 에탄
– propane [próupein] 프로판
– butane [bjúːtein] 부탄
– pentane-hexane [péntein héksein] 펜탄-헥산
– fraction [화학] 분류 물질
– [híːliəm] 헬륨
These/ are/ all industrial chemical components (in strong demand).
– component 성분
Most important/ is/ the large production of helium, a byproduct of natural gas (used in space industry, metallurgy, medicine and other areas).
– metallurgy [métələ̀ːrdʒi] 1.야금 2.야금술 3.야금학
Amur GPP/ will be/ the largest helium production plant (in the world).
Ethane, propane, butane, pentane-hexane/ will be used (to produce/ polymers, plastics, lubricants and other things including motor fuel).
– polymer 폴리머[중합체]
– lubricant 윤활유, 윤활제
The Amur GPP project (when complete in 2025)/ will be/ the largest gas processing plant complex in Russia and second largest in the world, bringing/ major new economic activity to the underdeveloped Far East region, a priority of the Russian government.
– Amur GPP project = 러시아 극동지역 발전의 기폭제
(In August 2017) Russian President Putin/ was/ present (for the first pouring of the concrete foundation (for the complex)).
(In his remarks) he/ noted/ [that, “In the past 50 years, our country/ has not seen/ anything similar]. Neither the Soviet Union nor Russia/ have implemented/ projects of this scale.
– note 지적하다
– implement 시행하다
This plant’s capacity/ will be/ 42 billion, which is/ a breakthrough not only for the industry but also in the overall development of the Russian Far East.”
– capacity 수용력; 용적; 가능성; 산출[달성] 능력
– breakthrough 획기적 발전; 돌파
Putin/ added, “During peak periods, the construction/ will require/ several thousand people, or almost 25,000 workers, (to be more precise).
– precise 정확한
Once the plant/ is/ complete, it/ will employ/ 2,500 to 3,000 people, which will allow/ us/ not only to move forward (in gas production) but also to create/ conditions (for building/ another giant plant in the country and one of the largest in the world).”
– once S+V 일단 . . .하면
The production (from the Amur plant complex)/ will be marketed for export to the Asian market (as well as expanding/ the gas supply network for Yakutia and the Amur Region (where until now commercial gas/ is/ almost non-existent)).
The strategic partner of Gazprom (responsible for the processing equipment and other engineering technology)/ is/ the German company, Linde, a world leader (in such specialized technology).
The Amur GPP complex/ will bring/ a major boost to Svobodny (which (like many towns in the remote Far East) has been losing/ population (following/ the collapse of the Soviet Union)).
– boost 부양책
The construction phase (as noted)/ is employing/ some 25,000 engineers and construction workers, most (drawn from the region), adding/ a major economic boost.
– phase [feiz] 단계, 국면
In addition Gazprom/ is building/ 42 new apartment buildings and 36 townhouses for some 5,000 people in Svobodny (who will be permanently employed at the facility).
There will also be/ a new school and kindergarten with a swimming pool, clinic, sports and cultural institutions.
– institution 시설
As well, Gazprom/ is cooperating with Amur State University and the Far Eastern Federal University, with new courses (to train/ future specialists in chemical technology).
– cooperate 협력하다
– train 훈련시키다
The municipal government/ is already benefiting from tax payments (from the presence of the project).
– municipal government 지자체 정부
– benefit 이익을 얻다
Ironically, we/ can title/ this/ the ‘Biden Memorial Pipeline.’Had the Obama Administration/ not launched/ their coup d’etat in 2013 at Maidan Square in Kiev, with the subsequent ouster of the elected president in February 2014 (in favor of literal neo-nazi parties and corrupt oligarchs (under a US puppet regime),
the completion of the Power of Siberia pipeline to China/ would likely not exist today.
– launch 시작하다, 개시하다
– ouster 추방
– in favor of . . .에 우호적인, . . .에 유리하게
– corrupt 부패한
– oligarch 과두
– puppet regime 꼭두각시 정권, 괴뢰 정권
– completion 완성
– exist 존재하다
– 가정법 과거완료 – if S+had pp, S+would have pp
if가 생략되는 문어체에서는 – Had+S+pp, . . .
즉 Had the Obama Administration/ not launched . . .에서 if를 넣으면 If the Obama Administration/ had not launched . . . 가 된다.
– 복합가정 if S+ had pp, S+would . . .
Negotiations (with Beijing) (for the pipeline)/ had been dragging on (for more than ten years) (when the Ukraine coup/ took place).
– negotiation [nigòuʃiéiʃən] 협상
– drag on (시간을) 질질 끌다
(After that coup) a final agreement/ was secured by Moscow with Beijing (in a matter of weeks) (as Putin/ engineered/ a geopolitical pivot to the East (away from NATO)).
– secure 확보하다
– in a matter of . . .만에
– engineer 꾀하다
Vice President Joe Biden/ was named (by Obama) (to oversee/ the Ukraine coup and its aftermath), which apparently included/ some corrupt sweetheart deals (for Hunter Biden and possibly Joe Biden with Ukraine gas company Burisma).
– oversee 감독하다, 감시하다, 두루 살피다
– sweetheart deals 은밀한 계약
The coup,/ carried out by then CIA head John Brennan, using/ sniper mercenaries (from neighboring Georgia), together with neocon US State Department official Victoria Nuland,/ was/ one of the more foolish geopolitical blunders of Washington (in recent decades).
– sniper 저격수
– mercenary [mə́ːrsənèri] 용병
– blunder 큰 실수
The pro-NATO coup/ was initiated (when Viktor Yanukovich’s government/ had decided/ to accept/ generous Russian terms (to join/ her Eurasian Economic Union (rather than a vague promise of possible EU membership candidate status)).
– initiate 개시하다, 착수하다
– generous 관대한
– terms 조건
– vague [veig] 애매모호한
Today Ukraine/ is treated with outcast status by the EU, and its economy/ is/ a shambles (as a result of the break with Russia).
– outcast status 버려진 지위
– shambles [ʃǽmblz] 아수라장, 개판
In May, 2014, just weeks after the CIA/ toppled/ the duly elected government of Viktor Yanukovich (in what Stratfor founder George Friedman/ called,/ “…the most blatant coup in (US) history),” Moscow/ signed/ the agreement with Beijing for the Gas Pipeline Deal of the Century, the Power of Siberia.
– duly 정식으로