기사 핵심 정보
지난 주 러시아 기업 가즈프롬 네프트는 북극해에서 생산된 원유를 북해루트를 거쳐 중국 옌타이(Yantai) 항구에 성공적으로 운송했다. 이는 기존의 유럽 시장에 더해 아시아 태평양 지역에까지 러시아의 에너지 네트워크가 연결되었음을 의미한다. 에너지 강국 러시아는 이제 유럽과 동시에 아시아까지 에너지로 연결시키며, ‘에너지 일대일로’를 구축 중이다. 심대한 정치적 파장을 동반하는 일이 아닐 수 없다. 유라시아의 힘이 동아시아에 밀물처럼 들어오고 있음을 느낀다. 이제 한국도 유대–아메리카 약탈금융제국의 독성 곰팡이 같은 음습한 기운을 멀리하고, 유라시아 자연 휴양림의 숲 속에서 평화롭게 산림욕을 하며 러시아의 ‘피톤치드(Phytoncide)’를 느껴보도록 하자.
‘피톤치드‘는 러시아말로써 Phyton(식물)과 Cide(다른 식물을 죽인다)의 합성어로서 수목들이 각종 병균과 해충, 곰팡이들로부터 자신을 보호하기 위하여 끊임없이 뿜어내는 방향성 물질인데 독소저해물질, 생장촉진물질 등이 함유되어 있다.
북극의 거대한 가스 매장지 탐사 개발에 있어, 주도적 위치로 말미암아 러시아는 액화천연가스(LNG) 생산을 극적으로 증가시킬 것이며, 원유 및 가스 분야에서 에너지 초강대국의 지위를 확립할 것이다. 러시아는 중국에게 핵심적 가스공급자가 되기 위해 야심적인 북극해 탐사 개발 프로그램을 진행시키고 있다. 러시아가 북극해 가스 부문에서 안정된 사업 권리를 확보해 둔 상황에서, 이제 그들은 원유 부문으로 개발의 초점을 이동시키고 있다.
2014년 미국이 러시아에게 가한 ‘빡쎈’ 경제제재에도 불구하고 러시아 가스생산 2위 업체 노바텍은 ‘야말 LNG 프로젝트 사업’을 중단 없이 진행시키고 있으며, 가즈프롬 네프트는 2013년부터 러시아의 북극해 탐사 개발 지역에서 생산된 원유를 수출하기조차 했다. 이제 미국 마피아 양아치들이 경제제재니 뭐니 개폼을 잡아도 안 통하는 단계에 이른 것 같다. 조금만 더 시간이 지나면, 지금과는 정반대로 미국이 경제제재를 받아 처참하게 붕괴되는 상상을 해본다.
Russia Delivers First Arctic Oil To China Via Northern Sea Route
– Yamal Peninsula oil and gas shipment routes/ can now go east and west
★[[Russia’s leading position (in the exploration and development of the Arctic’s huge gas deposits)/ will enable/ it/ to dramatically increase/ its liquefied natural gas (LNG) output, confirming/ Russia’s status (as an oil and gas superpower). Russia’s ambitious exploration and development program (in the Arctic)/ is/ a key part of Russia’s plan (to become/ the key gas supplier to China in the future). With // Russia’s presence in the Arctic gas sector // secured, it/ is now shifting/ its focus to development of the oil sector.]]
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Oilprice.com/ reports/ [that last week Russia’s Gazprom Neft, the country’s third biggest oil company (in terms of output) and the oil arm of state gas giant Gazprom,/ shipped/ its first cargo of oil (produced in the Arctic) to China via the Northern Sea Route (NSR)].
This shipment to the East/ adds (to its existing Western exports via the NSR to Europe).
According to Gazprom Neft, it/ took/ 47 days (to deliver/ a full cargo of 144,000 tonnes of sweet, light Novy Port oil from the Yamal peninsula developments 개발지 to the Chinese port of Yantai on the Bohai Sea.
The company/ can now complement/ its sales of Arctic oil in the European market (with sales to the Asia-Pacific markets), allowing/ Gazprom Neft/ to offer/ Novy Port oil with a year-round logistics scheme (tailored to prevailing market and climatic conditions).
The first trial voyage along the Northern Sea Route (from the Far-Eastern Russian port of Vladivostok to St Petersburg) by a large-sized and strengthened container ship/ took place in August 2018. It is now set to become/ a major transport hub.
Yamal-centred LNG projects/ can now use/ the transport route (to deliver/ cargoes both East and West). Russia’s second largest gas producer after Gazprom, Novatek,/ also has/ projects on the Yamal Peninsula and has managed to deliver/ almost all of its Yamal Peninsular (Yamal LNG) projects on budget and on time, notwithstanding the full weight of US sanctions (being imposed on Russia in 2014).
Gazprom Neft/ started/ [exporting/ oil (produced in Russia’s Arctic exploration and development region) (in 2013)], and has delivered/ at least 40 million tons of oil – including both the ARCO (Prirazlomnoye field) and Novy Port (Novoportovskoye field) blends – to several European countries. The Novy Port oil field/ is/ one of the largest oil and gas condensate fields in the Russian Arctic, with at least 250 million tons (around 1.8 billion barrels) of reserves.
Using/ a now proven system (developed alongside Novatek) – including (1)the Prirazlomnaya oil production platform, (2)the Arctic Gates oil terminal in the Gulf of Ob, (3)a fleet of reinforced tankers including LNG vessels (designed specifically to operate in the Arctic’s icy waters), (4)escort icebreakers and (5)an offshore oil shipment terminal in Murmansk – Gazprom Neft/ says/ [that it/ can transport/ oil year-round (at minimal cost) to Europe].
To the East, there are/ more natural constraints, as very thick ice/ makes/ deliveries outside the summer period/ extremely difficult for much of the time, and the costs/ are/ higher than those to Europe. Prior to last week’s sale (which OilPrice.com reports probably went to state refiner, the China National Chemical Corporation, ChemChina), Novy Port oil/ had not been exported east to China via the Northern Sea Route. However, the enormous hit 타격 to the European refining sector this year/ caused/ demand/ to drop substantially, while demand in China/ dipped by a much smaller degree and recovered much more quickly.
“Although Gazprom Neft/ has historically sent/ ESPO crude to China via the pipeline, this new capability/ will be/ useful to other Russian companies for oil as well, not just Novatek for LNG,” a senior oil and gas analyst in Moscow/ told/ OilPrice.com last week.
Russia’s number two oil company, Lukoil,/ also conducted/ a test crude oil delivery last September, featuring/ its Varandey blend*. This/ has/ very similar specifications to the Novy Port blend, with // the latter // having/ an API gravity of 35 degrees and a 0.1 per cent Sulphur content 유황 함유물, whilst Varandey/ has/ an API gravity of 35-37 degrees and a sulphur content of around 0.5 per cent.
At the same time as opening up/ new export routes for its oil, Gazprom Neft/ is working towards dramatically increasing/ the oil volumes from the Arctic (that it/ can offer to the East). In 2017, it/ acquired/ the development rights to the Tazovskoye and Severo-Samburgskoye fields in the Yamalo-Nenets region, with the subsoil usage rights to the Tazovskoye block (running until 2025), and those to the Severo-Samburgskoye block (until 2027). The Tazovskoye field/ is estimated to have/ recoverable oil reserves of at least 72 million tonnes, condensate reserves of 4.6 million tonnes, and non-associated gas reserves of at least 183.3 billion cubic metres.
The Severo-Samburgksoye block’s estimated oil reserves/ are/ even higher, at 90.5 million tonnes. This/ followed/ the commissioning only a year before of the huge Novoportskoye oil and gas field (estimated recoverable reserves of more than 250 million tonnes of crude and condensate, as well as more than 320 billion cubic metres of gas) and the Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye oil and gas field (recoverable reserves of more than 470 million tonnes of oil and gas condensate, and 188 billion cubic metres of gas).